Retrospective 11,672 patients tested for COVID-19, 818 that tested positive, showing significantly lower risk with melatonin use.
Jehi et al., 6/10/2020, retrospective, USA, North America, peer-reviewed, 8 authors.
risk of COVID-19 case, 58.0% lower, RR 0.42, p < 0.001, treatment 16 of 529 (3.0%), control 802 of 11143 (7.2%), development cohort.
risk of COVID-19 case, 99.7% lower, RR 0.003, p = 0.09, treatment 0 of 18 (0.0%), control 290 of 2005 (14.5%), continuity correction due to zero event (with reciprocal of the contrasting arm), Florida validation cohort.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules
prioritizing more serious outcomes. For an individual study the most serious
outcome may have a smaller number of events and lower statistical signficance,
however this provides the strongest evidence for the most serious outcomes
when combining the results of many trials.